Earliest voyages of Polynesian settlement written in current-day Pacific Islander genomes

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

By science reporter Belinda Smith

Posted 3h ago3 hours ago, updated 2h ago2 hours ago

Rapa Nui, or Easter Island, is one of many to have massive stone sculptures. Exactly when these islands were settled is still being solved.(

Getty Images: David Madison

The vast ocean voyages of the first people to set foot on Polynesian islands have been teased out of present-day genomes, not only showing where those founder groups travelled, but when they set sail, too.

Key points:

  • Timings and routes of initial Polynesian settlement are under debate
  • Researchers identified rare genetic traits in present-day Polynesian people to trace ancestry and migration routes
  • Some conclusions, such as the timing of settlement of Rapa Nui, or Easter Island, are not in line with previous studies

A study published in Nature also found the groups of people who produced intricately carved, massive stone sculptures, located on Polynesian islands some thousands of kilometres apart, were closely genetically related.

Alexander Ioannidis, a computational geneticist at Stanford University and co-author of the study, said the analysis reinforced the theory that a group left Samoa for the largest of the Cook Islands, Rarotonga, around the year 830.

There they stayed for more than 200 years before groups set sail eastwards, and in just a few centuries, island-hopped across the Pacific to eventually reach Rapa Nui, or Easter Island, some 5,000 kilometres away.

Studying present-day genomes, Dr Ioannidis says, can complement geological and archaeological evidence, and help fill in gaps in the region’s history.

“One of the limitations of the archaeological record is that if you’re trying to date when an island was settled, you need to find the oldest site and the oldest artifact, and there’s no guarantee that you’ve found it,” he said.

“If you’re looking at genomes of islanders themselves, those genomes pass through their entire history.”

But while some of the genetic results were consistent with previous studies, others were at odds.

How to extract history from biology

Polynesia comprises islands scattered across the Pacific Ocean in a rough triangle, with Hawai’i, Rapa Nui and Aotearoa, or New Zealand, as the points.

Some island groups are hundreds of kilometres from their nearest neighbours, but historians and oral traditions tell of Polynesian people traversing these vast distances, often in family groups of 30 to 200, in double-hulled canoes like this vessel unearthed on the New Zealand coast.

Polynesia comprises more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.(

Getty Images: PeterHermesFurian


To do this required incredibly good navigation skills, using celestial cues such as the stars, and currents and swell patterns, to guide canoes across vast tracts of ocean.

Navigation was also at the core of Polynesian spirituality, said Ian Goodwin, an adjunct climate researcher at the University of Western Australia and Macquarie University, who wasn’t involved in the study.

“The head navigator was considered to be a priest,” he said.

As people progressively sailed to new islands and made them home, they left clues in archaeological remains, such as tools and sculptures.

What they didn’t leave much of was DNA — heat and humidity help break DNA apart, and sandy islands don’t preserve remains too well either.

Searching for rare traits

Dr Ioannidis and his colleagues wondered if they could tap into present-day genomes and trace when and where the first Polynesian settlers arrived at each island.

“With modern samples, if you have the right computational techniques, you can extract ancestry of interest, and then you suddenly have this huge extra power of having lots of samples,” Dr Ioannidis said.

“It lets us do really interesting historical work without needing ancient genomes.”

Their idea was to use ancestry algorithms to search for rare traits hidden in the genome of Polynesian people living today.

It’s a computational technique based on the idea of “genetic bottlenecking”. If a small group of people set sail and settled on a new island, any rare genetic traits they had — say, one that caused their fingernails to grow faster — were passed onto the next generation.

Then, if another group split off from that first group to settle yet another island, they would take that fast-growing fingernail trait with them, as well as other unique traits.

The island of Raivavae, in central Polynesia, was settled fairly late in the game, around the year 1360, according to Dr Ioannidis (pictured).(

Suppled: Alexander Ioannidis 


Dr Ioannidis and his colleagues hoped to trace those earliest migration routes by mapping rare traits in present-day Polynesian people, such as those that increase risk of developing certain conditions and diseases.

They recruited 430 volunteers from 21 Pacific Island populations, and their genome — that is, their complete set of genetic information or DNA — was sequenced.

After stripping away sections of DNA from, for instance, European colonisation, Dr Ioannidis and his crew examined 600,000 individual sites in each genome and looked for rare traits encoded in the DNA.

“From that, we can tell how long ago those [people currently living on] two islands … were the same population living on the same island, before one population left and went and settled a new island,” he explained.

Polynesian voyages between islands

Dr Ioannidis and his fellow researchers found migration didn’t kick off from Rarotonga, the largest of the Cook Islands, until the year 1050 — more than 200 years after the first populations arrived from Samoa.

From there, it was a pretty rapid expansion to Tahiti and the rest of the Tōtaiete mā (Society Islands), the Tuhaʻa Pae (Austral Islands) to the south and the Te Henua ʻEnana (Marquesas) to the north, all the way to Rapa Nui in the east.

One way to explain this flurry of migration, Dr Ioannidis said, was a slight drop in sea level.

Some Polynesian islands are towering volcanoes, while others look more like Fakarava atoll, located in the Tuāmotus.(

Getty Images: Mlenny


Many Polynesian islands, such as some of the Tuāmotu Islands, are coral atolls — very low islands, essentially sand bars on coral reefs, that peek above the waves.

As sea level drops, it exposes some of these atolls.

“The Tuāmotu Islands are believed to have arisen around 950 AD,” Dr Ioannidis said.

“If you imagine that it took a while for vegetation to solidify on these new islands, the migrations happened right about the time that they became inhabitable.

“And it’s not just the Tuāmotus — all of these low-lying atolls, and there’s several intermediate islands in their path.”

Towards the end of these initial migrations, islands known for their stone statues were settled: Nuku Hiva and Fatu Hiva in the North and South Marquesas, Rapa Nui and Raivavae, which is part of the Tuhaʻa Pae (Austral Islands).

“The four island groups that have these megalithic statues are all also most closely genetically related … even though they’re really in different geographical locations,” Dr Ioannidis said.

Conclusions have ‘some inconsistencies’

Some of the study’s conclusions are in line with previous work on reconstructing Polynesian migration history, Patrick Kirch, an anthropologist at the University of Hawai’i, wrote in an accompanying News and Views article.

But Professor Kirch noted “there are some inconsistencies” between the new study and others, such as those that trace how languages diverged and different dialects emerged as populations settled on different islands.

These studies suggest there was quite a bit of contact between islands during those eastward migrations, whereas the migration sequence proposed by the new study suggests there was very little inter-island contact.

These carvings are found on the island of Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas, almost 4,000 kilometres away from the famous Rapa Nui sculptures.(

Getty Images: Jake Wyman


Another inconsistency concerns when the island of Rapa Nui was settled.

Through genome research, Dr Ioannidis and his colleagues dated Rapa Nui’s settlement in the year 1210.

But this is somewhat later than dates suggested by archaeological and geological evidence.

“The geological evidence [for settlement] from sediments on Rapa Nui is earlier than 1210,” Dr Goodwin said.

“Much of it most closely aligns with the late 1000s and early 1100s.”

An earlier arrival to Rapa Nui and some of the other outermost Polynesian islands is also consistent with wind patterns of the time.

In a 2014 study, Dr Goodwin and colleagues found the Pacific winds that blow to the west today actually shifted in the other direction around the year 1100.

Polynesian canoes couldn’t sail against the wind. But a wind shift from 1100 allowed groups to set sail eastwards and, carried downwind, they could reach distant islands within a couple of weeks.

Those shifting winds also likely gave early Polynesian people a very good reason to set sail: to find fresh water, Dr Goodwin said.

Winds blowing to the east meant there were fewer cyclones, which made sailing in the open ocean safer, but it also meant less rainfall.

Less rain meant more drought, forcing groups to go looking for new islands to inhabit.

“You have to ask, why would a group of humans decide to voyage into the unknown?” Dr Goodwin said.

“That’s why understanding the climate is so important — they were looking for more reliable water on lots of these islands.”

Around the early to mid 1100s, Dr Goodwin said, “they’d gone as far east as they could go and then the weather changed, and there were really strong trade winds [pushing west again]”.

That’s when Hawai’i and Aotearoa (New Zealand) were settled, between the years 1140 and 1290.

“By the early- to mid-1100s, the climate window for eastward voyaging shuts, and they start exploring back in the other direction,” Dr Goodwin said.

“That’s when we see all the action heading towards New Zealand.”

Tracing traits could improve medical care

Despite these discrepancies in migration patterns, ancestry algorithms do have another use.

Dr Ioannidis hopes identifying rare traits — many of which cause disease — could help provide more personalised medical care.

“If you want to be able to provide useful personalised genetic health results to people on those islands, it’s not good enough just to say, ‘are you a Pacific Islander?'” he said.

“This is not a uniform population. And if you really want to do good, personalized health, you need to zoom into each island.”

EUROPE SHARIATIZED: Beating Of Wives Legitimized By German Court

The following is an article By Serge Trifkovic and we reprint it here with his permission.

The husband routinely beat his 26-year-old German-born wife, mother of their two young children, and threatened to kill her when the court ordered him to move out of their apartment in Hamburg. The police were called repeatedly to intervene. The wife wanted a quick divorce – without waiting a year after separation, as mandated by German law – arguing that that the abuse and death threats she suffered easily fulfilled the “hardship” criteria required for an accelerated decree absolute. The judge – a woman by the name of Christa Datz-Winter – refused, however, arguing that the Kuran allows the husband to beat his wife and that the couple’s Moroccan origin must be taken into account in the case. They both come from a cultural milieu, Her Honor wrote, in which it is common for husbands to beat their wives – and the Kuran sanctions such treatment. “The [husband’s] exercise of the right to castigate does not fulfill the hardship criteria as defined by Paragraph 1565” of German federal law, the judge’s letter said. [emphasis added] The judge further suggested that the wife’s Western lifestyle would give her husband grounds to claim his honor had been compromised.

The reports in German and English do not state this, but Turkish papers have reported that the judge made specific reference to Sura 4, which contains the infamous Verse 34: Men have the authority over women because God has made the one superior to the other, and because they spend their wealth to maintain them. Good women are obedient. They guard their unseen parts because God has guarded them. As for those from whom you fear disobedience, admonish them and send them to beds apart and beat them. The wife’s lawyer, Barbara Becker-Rojczyk, could not believe her eyes: a German judge was invoking Kuran in a German legal case to assert the husband’s “right to castigate” his wife. The meaning was clear: “the husband can beat his wife,” Becker-Rojczyk commented. She decided to go public with the case last Tuesday because the judge was still on the bench, two months after the controversial verdict was handed down.

The judge was subsequently removed from the case, but not from the bench. A spokesman for the court, Bernhard Olp, said the judge did not intend to suggest that violence in a marriage is acceptable, or that the Kuran supersedes German law. “The ruling is not justifiable, but the judge herself cannot explain it at this moment,” he said. But according to Spiegel Online this was not the first time that German courts have used “cultural background” to inform their verdicts. Christa Stolle of the women’s rights organization Terre des Femmes said that in cases of marital violence there have been a number of cases where the perpetrator’s culture of origin has been considered as a mitigating circumstance.

Of some 25 million Muslims in Western Europe, the majority already consider themselves autonomous, a community justifiably opposed to the decadent host society of infidels. They already demand the adoption of sharia within segregated Muslim communities, which but one step that leads to the imposition of sharia on the society as a whole. Swedish courts are already introducing sharia principles into civil cases. An Iranian-born man divorcing his Iranian-born wife was ordered by the high court in the city of Halmestad to pay Mahr, Islamic dowry ordained by the Kuran as part of the Islamic marriage contract. As Chronicles readers may recall, Europe’s elite class is ready for further surrenders. Dutch Justice Minister Piet Hein Donner—a Christian Democrat—sees the demand for Sharia as perfectly legitimate, and argues that it could be introduced “by democratic means.” Muslims have a right to follow the commands of their religion, he says, even if the exercise of that right included some “dissenting rules of behavior”: “It is a sure certainty for me: if two thirds of all Netherlanders tomorrow would want to introduce Sharia, then this possibility must exist. Could you block this legally? It would also be a scandal to say ‘this isn’t allowed’! The majority counts. That is the essence of democracy.” The same “essence” was reiterated in similar terms last July by Jens Orback, the Swedish Integration [sic] Minister, who declared in a radio debate on Channel P1, “We must be open and tolerant towards Islam and Muslims because when we become a minority, they will be so towards us.”

To all forward-looking Europeans it must be a welcome sign that continental courts are catching up with the leader in Sharia compliance, Great Britain. A key tenet of Sharia is that non-Muslims cannot try Muslims. Peter Beaumont, QC, senior circuit judge at London’s Central Criminal Court, the Old Bailey, accepts the commandment not only in civil, but also in criminal cases. He banned Jews and Hindus—and anyone married to one—from serving on the jury in the trial of Abdullah el-Faisal, accused of soliciting the murder of “unbelievers.” “For obvious reasons,” he said, “members of the jury of the Jewish or Hindu faith should reveal themselves, even if they are married to Jewish or Hindu women, because they are not fit to arbitrate in this case.” One can only speculate what the reaction would be if equally “obvious reasons” were invoked in an attempt to exclude Muslims from a trial of an alleged “Islamophobe.”

Here at home, The New York Times had a bone to pick with the German judge mainly because of her suggestion that Islam justified violence against women. It stated matter-of-factly, “While the verse cited by Judge Datz-Winter does say husbands may beat their wives for being disobedient — an interpretation embraced by fundamentalists— mainstream Muslims have long rejected wife-beating as a medieval relic.”

In reality “mainstream Muslims” do nothing of the sort. New York Times’ claim notwithstanding, the original sources for “true” Islam—the Kuran and Hadith—provide ample and detailed evidence on Islamic theory and the sources of Shari’a practice that remains in force all over the Islamic world today.

According to orthodox Islamic tradition, the verse invoked by the German judge (4:34) was revealed in connection with a woman who complained to Mohammad that her husband had hit her on the face, which was still bruised. At first he told her to get even with him, but then added, “Wait until I think about it.” The revelation duly followed, after which he said: “We wanted one thing but Allah wanted another, and what Allah wanted is best.” Qatari Sheikh Walid bin Hadi explains that every man is his own judge when using violence: “The Prophet said: Do not ask a husband why he beats his wife.”

The scholars at the most respected institution of Islamic learning, Cairo’s Azhar University, further explain: “If admonishing and sexual desertion fail to bring forth results and the woman is of a cold and stubborn type, the Qur’an bestows on man the right to straighten her out by way of punishment and beating, provided he does not break her bones nor shed blood. Many a wife belongs to this querulous type and requires this sort of punishment to bring her to her senses!”

Physical violence against one’s wife, far from being Haram, remains divinely ordained and practically advised in modern Islam. “Take in thine hand a branch and smite therewith and break not thine oath,” the Kuran commands. Muslim propagators in the West “explain” that the Islamic teaching and practice is in line with the latest achievements of clinical psychology: it is not only correct, but positively beneficial to them because “women’s rebelliousness (nushuz) is a medical condition” based either on her masochistic delight in being beaten and tortured, or sadistic desire to hurt and dominate her husband. Either way,

Such a woman has no remedy except removing her spikes and destroying her weapon by which she dominates. This weapon of the woman is her femininity. But the other woman who delights in submission and being beaten, then beating is her remedy. So the Qur’anic command: ‘banish them to their couches, and beat them’ agrees with the latest psychological findings in understanding the rebellious woman. This is one of the scientific miracles of the Qur’an, because it sums up volumes of the science of psychology about rebellious women.

According to Allah’s commandment to men (Kuran 2:223), “Your wives are as a soil to be cultivated unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will.” Therefore “the righteous women are devoutly obedient.” Those that are not inhabit the nether regions of hell. Muhammad has stated that most of those who enter hell are women, not men. Contemporary Azhar scholars of Egypt agree: “Oh, assembly of women, give charity, even from your jewelry, for you (comprise) the majority of the inhabitants of hell in the day of resurrection.”

In the same spirit, courts in Muslim countries, to mention a particularly egregious legal practice, routinely sentence raped women to death for “adultery,” usually by stoning, because they follow the Sharia that mandates this punishment. To the outright divine command of every wife’s obedience to her husband, Muhammad has added a few comments of his own. When asked who among women is the best, he replied: “She who gives pleasure to him (husband) when he looks, obeys him when he bids, and who does not oppose him regarding herself and her riches fearing his displeasure.” Even in basic necessities the needs of the husband take precedence: “You shall give her food when you have taken your food, you shall clothe her when you have clothed yourself, you shall not slap her on the face, nor revile (her), nor leave (her) alone, except within the house.” The husband’s sexual needs have to be satisfied immediately: “When a man calls his wife to his bed, and she does not respond, the One Who is in the heaven is displeased with her until he is pleased with her.”

Such treatment of women might be expected to make Islam abhorrent within the cultural milieu epitomized by the equal-rights obsessed European Union and the neofeminist New York Times, but this has not happened. There is a reason for this. It is the refusal of Islam to accept the wife as her husband’s closest and inseparable loving partner and companion. Islam therefore challenges Christian marriage in principle and in practice. Muslim teaching on marriage and the family, though “conservative” about “patriarchy,” denies the traditional Christian concept of matrimony. Islam is therefore an “objective” ally of postmodernity, a few beatings here and a few rapes there notwithstanding.

Pyramids In The Pacific

The Unwritten History Of Australia

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

Footprints From The Dreamtime Australia’s Unknown Stone-Age Past

“When Giant fellas alive, them big animals still bin

walkabout this country, Ground shake when he

walk. He eat peoples”


Tribal Elder of the Yabuduruwa people

of Arnhem Land,

concerning the Nagarun, a race of giant people

that once roamed the region.

Above some of the Bathurst NSW Stone-Megatools

Recovered by Rex Gilroy

One day in 1931 on a windswept sandhill, the remains of the shoreline a long-vanished lake about 100km south of the Murray River, at Glenloth, Victoria, John Gibbs, a 10 year old local boy, was playing in the shell grit of an ancient Aboriginal midden. In a basin of the sandhill amid the debris of broken shells, he picked up a large fragmenting football-size lump of petrified mud. Protruding from one of the fragments, he found a small bronze coin. Years later a Melbourne Museum numismatist would identify it as Greek, and that it had been minted in Egypt during the reign of the Greek Ptolemy Philometor the 6th in the 2nd century B.C.

There will be more to say about this coin in a future chapter. The suggestion as to how the coin turned up where it was found is of course that it had been left behind by ancient visitors; Greek explorers perhaps, or even Arabs, Indians or Malayans with whom the Greeks traded.

Similarly, in 1961 a family picnicking on the Daly River, west of Katherine in the Northern territory, found a gold scarab, an object of worship of the ancient Egyptians. How did this valuable ornament find its way to such a remote location? One might ask the same question of a carved stone head of the ancient Chinese Goddess Shao Lin {protectress of mariners at sea} removed from a beachfront hillside at Milton, on the New South Wales far south coast in 1983.

The many ancient rock inscriptions of Phoenician, Libyan, Egyptian, Celtic, Scandinavian and other origins that have turned up across Australia. Relics, rock inscriptions and megalithic ruins left here by seafaring adventurers who came here from civilizations now long turned to dust. They sailed in search of new lands rich in gold, silver, copper and tin, precious stones and pearls, using the worlds’ oceans as watery highways.

It is one of the objectives of this book to demonstrate that these people not only discovered and mined the mysterious “great south land” and its neighbours, but established colonies {some of which may have survived for generations} and were large and important enough to establish a local ruling class. By the time they vanished they had influenced the cultures of the native peoples of the region, leaving behind them ghostly megalithic ruins of temples, tombs and pyramids and rock scripts in a host of ancient tongues; relics that continue to perplex conservative historians and question the dogma that the peoples of the ancient world lacked the ability to construct and navigate oceangoing water craft.

The fact is that people were putting to sea centuries before the invention of a written language, and that the water craft they sailed in were far from flimsy. Although my book concerns the ‘unknown’ history of Australia’s discovery and exploration, it also is to some degree a history of ancient mining activities throughout the Australian-West Pacific region. In forthcoming chapters, I shall demonstrate that, at various times in antiquity, and during the Copper and Bronze ages in particular, Australia’s coastline saw the sails of mineral-seeking peoples from many ancient exotic lands.

Giant Hominid FootprintThe “King Kong” of KanangraGiant Hominid Footprint
Dawn of The God Kings -Uru- The Lost Megalithic Civilisation of Australia

“And on this point he {Poseidonius} does well to cite the

statement of Plato that it is possible that the story

about the island of Atlantis is not fiction. Concerning

Atlantis….an island no smaller in size than a continent”.

Rex and Stone-Head

What is it like to suddenly realise that you are the discoverer of an hitherto unknown ‘lost’ civilisation? Words cannot describe the feeling at the moment I realised I had made such a discovery, and the enormous importance it had for Australian and World History.

I suppose the nearest description one could give of my feelings, would compare them with the excitement of Heinrich Schliemann, when he discovered the ‘mythical’ lost city of Troy in 1873. Schliemann [1822-1890} influenced more by his interpretation of the writings of the ancients, than by the negative scholarship of his day, scorned by protests of ‘learned’ university professors, who said he was wasting his time and money searching for a city that was nothing more than a myth born in the mind of Homer. Schliemann, as every history student knows, proved them all wrong.

Many other important discoveries were made by this great amateur archaeologist, all of which earned him the animosity of the university establishment, who argued his findings were questionable because of his lack of academic qualifications. The charge that he was not a qualified scholar stemmed from the academic conceit, which rates university degrees, even if secured by the most mediocre minds, above genius. Genius Schliemann[GR1]  truly was. Today he is regarded as one of the greatest archaeologists who ever lived.

Scattered across the Australian landscape stand great grey stones weathered with age, arranged in a variety of formations; circles, alignments, single standing stones, tombs and temples; granduous monolithic structures forming great cultural centres of religious and astronomical importance, whose construction would have demanded architectural planning on a grand scale, and the participation of thousands of labourers.

They are megaliths, the monuments of along-vanished race that once spread its advanced stone-age culture across the Earth, from the Australian/West Pacific islands northwards to the furthest reaches of Asia and westward across Europe.

They were the work of the earliest civilisation known to mankind. Who the builders were, their achievements, and why they vanished are mysteries that have long perplexed scholars. No official systematic census has yet been carried out on these monuments, but at least 50,000 of them are known throughout western Europe alone. Thousands more stand across mainland and island south-east Asia and still more in Australia.

The Serpent Altar Discovered 1965 by Rex GilroyThe EagleThe Serpent Altar Frontal View

‘Australantis’ Did Civilisation Spread From Australia?

“They who build in granite,

who set a hall inside their pyramid,

and wrought beauty with their fine work…

Thier altar stones also are empty as those of the weary ones,

the ones who die upon the embankment leaving no mourners”.

Ancient Egyptian Saying

Western End of the 234.3m Stone Alignment

Found by Rex Gilroy[GR2] 

Deep in the Glen Innes hills in 1976, Heather {my wife] and I investigated a granite-covered property. Scattered over an area of about 12 square acres we identified a number of huge menhirs, altars and other stone arrangements; the most impressive of these being a lengthy alignment of huge boulders, a megalithic temple and three circles, as being the largest we have found to date.

The largest circle is actually pear-shaped, and stands on an open flat upon an east-west axis. The western end is marked by a larger pointer stone, from where the sun could be sighted rising in the east through a wide gap in the stones. The ‘pointer ‘ actually forms the apex of the ‘pear’ as well as a triangular formation which makes up the western end of the pear-circle. Thirty four stones form the ‘pear-circle’, which measures 120m in length by 60m width. The triangular formation being 15.2m across its north-south base by 57.1m and 80.1m on its north and south sides respectively.

The exact purpose of this crude ‘triangle’ is still uncertain. 157.2m to the east lies the second circle formed of ten massive boulders 30.9m from east to west by 28.4m from north to south with a large 4.6m by 1.8m wide altar near the southern edge, and an alignment of three small rocks spaced 6.7m and 8m, apart on an south east-north west axis within the structure point beyond a 16.5m wide gap between two monoliths.

The third circle,{actually ‘horseshoe’ shaped}, measures 96.8m circumference by 34.3m width east-west, and 32.4m from north-south. Constructed of mostly huge boulders, the centre is marked by one of these, and a large pine tree now growing beside it obscures the view. There is a 4.2m wide entrance between the two boulders on the north-west side, and a 10.6m wide gap on the south-west side allowed the ancient astronomers to observe the sunset in the winter months from the large central boulder. Other stones on the eastern side were employed to mark the Winter Solstice [GR3] {June 22nd}

Some of the stones forming this circle average 3.7m or more in height by 12.4m and more in circumference, weighing 30 to 40 tonnes. The stone alignment consists of seven standing stones {one being a massive 40 tonne boulder}, erected on an east-west axis to a length of 97.3m. There is a 137m gap toward the east until a 3m tall boulder. Behind this facing west, lying broken in two is an obelisk-like menhir {standing stone}. Upon its exposed surface, which faced the east when erected upright, are nine deeply carved grooves several centimetres apart.

The broken base measures 4.6m square and when intact and upright this huge menhir stood 15.3m tall. The purpose of the grooves, it is thought, was to catch and in some way calculate, the receding shadow of the rising sun. This menhir towered over the alignment, which has a total length of 328.7m. An observer standing some metres beyond the westernmost stone would have been able to line up the rising sun with the ‘obelisk’ menhir at the Summer Solstice[GR4] . South of the third circle stand massive stone blocks in a square formation measuring 30.8m by 16m; the remains of a temple.

A corridor extends between the blocks along the structures’ southern side. Two large altars are found here. One measures 4m long by 2.1m wide and 90cm tall, with a 1.6m length and 36cm wide ‘pathway’ cut up the left side of the stone to a flat surface.

Stone Head

Sumerian God-Kings and the land of Uru.

‘In the distant sea 100 beru of water {away]..

The ground of Arali {is}

It is where the Blue Stones cause ill,

Where the craftsman of Anu *

The Silver Axe carries, which shines

as the day

{*Anu-King of the Gods}

Ancient Sumerian text

Sumerian Galley

The ancient folklores of the Indus Valley and Sumer speak of their culture-bearing ancestors arriving from out of the Indian ocean {or as it is called in ancient Brahman Sanscrit [GR5] ‘Sumundra’} at the dawn of history. India’s sacred book ‘the Rig Veda’ written between 5000-4000 BC, speaks of these culture-bearers as having arrived from a great land far across the {Indian} Ocean called Aryanam Veijo. Veijo means ‘seed’ and Aryanam ‘Aryan’s’, thus “Seed of the Aryans”. It was to them the land of origin of the Ayrans. Similarly, the Persians called it “Azer-baijan”, or the “seed place of the Azar people”, the people who worship fire, locating it in the Southern Hemisphere. Azar-baijan survives as the name of modern Armenia.

According to Babylonian mythology, the deity Ea, [GR6] the god of fertilizing and creative waters produced a son, Marduk, who created the {southern} Paradise by laying a reed upon the face of the waters. He then formed dust and poured it out beside the reed to create the first humans. The water-worshippers of Eridu believed that the Sun and the Moon which rose from the primordial deep, had their origins in the everlasting fire in Ea’s domain at the bottom of the sea; ie the ‘Underworld’ Paradise of Uru. It was from this Paradise that a mysterious child came across the {Indian} Ocean to inaugurate a new era of civilisation and instruct the people how to grow corn and become warriors.

Berosus of Caldea {270-230 BC} described a race of monster beings, half-men and half-fish who, led by a great culture-bearer, Oannes, arrived on the shores of the Persian Gulf, to introduce the arts of writing, architecture and agriculture to Mesopotamia. In other words, they were skilled mariners; Gods who introduced civilisation into Mesopotamia[GR7]  and the rest of mankind.

The spread of Uruan culture by water craft to Mesopotamia and India could be called the first great maritime expansion; and if so, then the rise of Sumer saw another which spread Sumerian influences to the Indus Valley and Persia, to Egypt and Greece. Their vessels eventually penetrating beyond south-east Asia into the west Pacific to ‘rediscover ‘ their ‘land of origin’, {the mysterious land of Uru} and sail on across the Pacific to the Americas. Sumerian influence upon the biblical world was considerable, and they provided the first ruling classes of Indus and Egyptian civilisations. The Sumerians first came to prominence around 3500BC.

The land of Sumer at first developed into a collection of fifteen or twenty small states, situated at the head of the Persian Gulf in lower Babylonia, where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers have their mouths. From here the large ocean-going reed boats of Sumer ventured forth on trade and mineral-seeking expeditions to Asia and the Middle-East. The cities, including Ur and kish, were situated far inland, but they were within trading distance with the Mediterranean lands. Archaeologists estimate that, at their height these cities supported considerable populations.

For example, Ur may have held as many as 500,000 people. The Sumerian ports of the Persian Gulf, which date from as early as the 4th millennium BC, were ideally located for trade between India and the Middle-East, although Sumerian trade was mostly directed eastwards.  

Ancient Mining In Australia Found

by Rex Gilroy 

Sons of fire and Dwellers of darkness. Indians explore the Pacific.

“Sons of the Sea, mighty to save

discoverers of riches, ye Gods with deep

thought who find out wealth”

Hymn 136, 10th book of the Rig Veda.

Ayres Rock / Uluru Photographed

by Rex Gilroy

After Uru and Sumer, India became the home of one of the world’s most ancient civilisations, with a written history which scholars date back 4,000 years. As previously discussed India’s earliest known civilised society began in the Valley of the Indus River, which lies between Pakistan and north-west India. Now largely arid, in Antiquity it was a jungle and marsh covered region.

Migrating dark-skinned people from the mountainous area of Iran, who had contact with the people of Mesopotamia, entered the region around 4000 BC to establish farming communities which grew into cities. The Indus Valley people made mud bricks with which they constructed better dwellings that resisted the yearly floods. They also developed many other skills in soil cultivation, tanning leather, garment weaving and the manufacturing of pottery and furniture.

By 2000 BC their cities had grown around the coast of the Arabian Sea, extending from the Iranian border eastwards and southwards to the region of modern Bombay, and in a broad area stretching far northwards across the flood plain of the Indus Valley. The people of the Indus civilisation developed well-organised governments and a form of picture writing {yet to be deciphered}.

Their civilizations possessed many Mesopotamia features with an organised religion. They manufactured copper tools and shared the wheeled cart with Mesopotamia, and made Jewlery equal to any elsewhere at the time. These people and their culture are identified as the Harappan Civilisation[GR8] , 100 sites are known to archaeologists, two of these were large cities–Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Several other sites were large towns, and the rest were small villages. It is estimated that Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro each supported populations of up to 40,000 people with a busy commercial life. Many materials had to be imported, particularly metals.

There nearest source of silver, lead and gold came from Afghanistan, where they also obtained lapis lazuli. Here they also obtained copper, as well as from Rajasthan not far from the Indus Valley. They obtained Jadeite from northern Burma and Tibet, and from Iran {via northern India} and further west, turquoise and tin. They produced bronze tools and weapons and traded with Mesopotamia, especially Ur. Their large single-sailed wooden ships ventured farther afield than often claimed, for there is evidence that Indus crews reached remote lands beyond the Indian Ocean.

Comparisons have been drawn between the Indus and the mysterious script of Easter Island and other similar inscriptions found upon rocks in Brazil and Australia. Their ships returned home with copper, ivory and wood from Oman on the Persian Gulf. But Indus crews must have reached Ceylon {Sri Lanka} and other south-east Asian islands on their way into the Pacific Ocean {as suggested by the Australian rock inscriptions} and vessels sailing between the Indus and south-east Asian ports, might have occasionally been blown off course to find our shores, as were Phoenicians, Egyptians and others throughout the ages.

As the name ‘Uru’ was known throughout the Indian sub-continent and Mesopotamia, the Harappans must already have had knowledge of Australia. The Harappans were worshippers of a horned fertility god that resembled Shiva, one of the most prominent of all Hindu deities, figurines of the gods and goddesses recovered from their ancient settlements show close similarities with those of Hindu deities today; thus the Harappans had an influence upon the Hindu religion.


 [GR1]Heinrich Schliemann, in full Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann, (born January 6, 1822, Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin [Germany]—died December 26, 1890, Naples, Italy), German archaeologist and excavator of TroyMycenae, and Tiryns. He is sometimes considered to be the modern discoverer of prehistoric Greece, though scholarship in the late 20th and early 21st centuries revealed that much self-mythologizing was involved in establishing his reputation.

 [GR2]Rex Gilroy is an Australian who has written articles and self-published books on cryptids and unexplained or speculative phenomena. His work has focused on yowie reports, ‘out of place’ animals, UFOs, and propositions regarding a ‘lost’ Australian civilization. He has contributed to, or been the subject of, several articles, in speculative media such as Nexus magazine and in Australian newspapers. He is the author and publisher of several books, the first of which appeared in 1986. He has documented over 3000 reports relating to yowies. His eclectic career has seen field research into butterflies and anthropology, but he remains most notable for his controversial searches for the recently extinct Thylacine, Moas, alien big cats or the source of the yowie legend.

  •  [GR3]Also called: the Longest Night
  • Celebrations: Festivals, spending time with loved ones, feasting, singing, dancing, fires
  • Observed by: Various cultures
  • Significance: Astronomically marks the beginning of lengthening days and shortening nights
  • Related to: Winter festivals and the solstice
  • Frequency: Twice a year (once in the northern hemisphere, once in the southern hemisphere, six months apart)

 [GR4]The summer solstice, also known as estival solstice or midsummer, occurs when one of the Earth’s poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun. It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere. For that hemisphere, the summer solstice is when the Sun reaches its highest position in the sky and is the day with the longest period of daylight. Within the Arctic circle or Antarctic circle, there is continuous daylight around the summer solstice. On the summer solstice, Earth’s maximum axial tilt toward the Sun is 23.44°. Likewise, the Sun’s declination from the celestial equator is 23.44°.

t Brahman (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मन्, Hindi: ब्रह्म) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept refers to the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the “creative principle which lies realized in the whole world”. Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads. The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) as well as having a form (Sakar) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Sanskrit: आत्मन्), (self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being. In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.

 [GR6]Ea, (Akkadian), Sumerian Enki, Mesopotamian god of water and a member of the triad of deities completed by Anu (Sumerian: An) and Enlil. From a local deity worshiped in the city of Eridu, Ea evolved into a major god, Lord of Apsu (also spelled Abzu), the fresh waters beneath the earth (although Enki means literally “lord of the earth”).

 [GR7]Mesopotamia (Arabic: بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن‎ Bilād ar-RāfidaynAncient Greek: Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām-Nahrīn or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Bēṯ Nahrīn) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent. It occupies the area of present-day Iraq, and parts of IranTurkeySyria and Kuwait.

The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. Later the Arameans dominated major parts of Mesopotamia (c. 900 BC – 270 AD)

Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, the eastern regions of Mesopotamia fell to the Sassanid Persians. The division of Mesopotamia between Roman (Byzantine from AD 395) and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines. A number of primarily neo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century BC, including AdiabeneOsroene, and Hatra.

Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having “inspired some of the most important developments in human history, including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops, and the development of cursive script, mathematicsastronomy, and agriculture“. It has been known as one of the earliest civilizations to ever exist in the world

 [GR8]Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]Urdu/Punjabi: ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north. The current village of Harappa is less than 1 km (0.62 mi) from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a legacy railway station from the British Raj period, it is a small crossroads town of 15,000 people today.

The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Indus Valley Civilisation centred in Sindh and the Punjab, and then the Cemetery H culture. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied about 150 hectares (370 acres) with clay brick houses at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600 BC – 1900 BC), which is considered large for its time. Per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilisation by its first excavated site, the Indus Valley Civilisation is also called the Harappan Civilisation.

The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore–Multan Railway. In 2005, a controversial amusement park scheme at the site was abandoned when builders unearthed many archaeological artefacts during the early stages of building work.